Common digestive disorders include gastroesophageal reflux disease, cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and hiatal hernia. The most common symptoms of digestive disorders include bleeding, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn, pain, nausea, and vomiting. The digestive system, comprised of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder, helps the body digest food. Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is long-lasting inflammation in the digestive tract. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two most common types of IBD. Get an appointment within 24 to 48 hours in the comfort of your home, at work, or elsewhere. In a complex and changing environment, medical professionals need to surround themselves with committed, flexible, efficient and creative partners.
Diseases of the digestive system Digestion is a biological process that breaks down and transforms the food you eat into nutrients that cross the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream. It starts in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, and then continues in the stomach, which secretes digestive juices to help break down food and contracts to grind it. The predigested food (or chyme) then enters the intestine, which continues to break it down with more digestive juices from the pancreas and gallbladder. Nutrients cross the wall of the intestine and circulate in the blood, where the body uses them to produce energy, among other things.
All unabsorbed food combines with dead cells in the intestinal wall and is transformed into fecal matter in the colon. Digestive system disorders include problems and diseases that affect several parts of the digestive system at once, as well as those that affect only one part. They are numerous and varied and can sometimes be caused by food allergies or intolerances. Functional digestive disorders are caused by improper functioning of the digestive system.
Most of them develop in the stomach (p. ex. Loss of appetite, nausea, burning, hiccups, and bloating) or as intestinal disorders (e.g. If you suffer from dyspepsia, you have difficulty digesting, which can lead to bloating, nausea, and the feeling that your stomach is constantly full.
The causes of functional digestive disorders may include a heavy meal that is difficult to digest (e.g. ex.,. Aerophagy occurs when a large amount of air in the stomach causes bloating, intestinal pain, and belching (for example, if you swallow too much air while eating or during the day, or if you chew gum or smoke). Pregnant women are more at risk of aerophagy.
Irritable bowel syndrome (or functional colopathy) is partly due to the same factors as dyspepsia and causes intestinal pain, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea or constipation. Certain foods, which are digested too quickly or too slowly, can trigger symptoms (e.g. Legumes, cabbage, garlic, onions, radishes, leeks, artichokes, fried potatoes, fatty meats, sauces and fermented cheeses). A number of factors can provoke diseases of the digestive system.
Below you will find information on the most common diseases. The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when gastric juices (acids) produced by the stomach travel to the esophagus. Reflux causes inflammation of the esophagus and causes burning and irritation.
If left untreated, it can damage the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux is caused by a malfunction of the esophageal sphincter. During normal digestion, the sphincter (located where the esophagus and stomach meet) opens to allow ingested food to pass through and closes to prevent it from returning to the stomach. If the sphincter doesn't close, the contents of the stomach move into the esophagus and cause reflux.
Gastroesophageal reflux can also be caused by a hiatal hernia, which occurs when part of the stomach “rises” with the esophagus into the rib cage through the opening of the diaphragm (the hiatal orifice). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Treatment for GERD depends on the frequency and severity of symptoms. For benign cases, many doctors start by prescribing simple changes to the patient's diet, in addition to recommending over-the-counter antacids (baking soda, sodium alginate, etc. If symptoms persist, histamine H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, famitidine, ranitidine, etc.).
For more severe cases, the next step is to prescribe more powerful drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, etc. Other doctors, especially in the most symptomatic cases, prefer to start directly with a PPI, although the doses must then be gradually reduced and changed to over-the-counter medications. In the most refractory cases, laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery helps strengthen the valve between the esophagus and the stomach. Called gastric if found in the stomach and duodenal if it forms in the duodenum, this ulcer forms on the wall of the digestive tract.
It's quite painful because it comes into direct contact with acid in the digestive tract. Pylori), a bacteria that survives acidity, is responsible for most ulcers and causes 60 to 80% of stomach ulcers and 80 to 85% of duodenal ulcers. It attacks the layer of mucus that normally protects the stomach and small intestine from acidity. Smoking, alcohol abuse, stress, or an inherited predisposition can also cause excessive acid production in the stomach.
Antibiotic treatment is prescribed for Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection, the most common cause of gastroduodenal ulcers. Those ulcers not caused by H. Pylori is treated the same way as cases of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Dietary changes, stopping the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and taking over-the-counter antacids are often sufficient.
If necessary, histamine H2 antagonists (cimetidine, famitidine, etc.). Rarely, surgery is indicated to treat certain drug-resistant ulcers or if gastric cancer is suspected. The exact cause of a hiatal hernia isn't well understood. In some cases, it is present at birth and is caused by a hiatus that is too wide or because the entire diaphragm is poorly closed.
However, the elderly are more likely to have a hernia because the elasticity and stiffness of the diaphragm tend to decrease with age and the hiatus tends to widen. In addition, the structures that attach the cardia to the diaphragm and hold the stomach in place change with age. Obesity or pregnancy may also be associated with hiatal hernia. The treatment for sliding-type hiatal hernia is the same as for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Dietary modifications and over-the-counter antacids (baking soda, sodium alginate, etc.). The next step involves more powerful drugs called “proton pump inhibitors” (PPIs), such as omeprazole, esomeprazole and pantoprazole. The type of paraesophageal hiatal hernia, which occurs infrequently and is less symptomatic, may require surgery that involves moving the stomach back into the abdominal cavity and closing the hiatus to prevent the stomach from herniating again. Bladder stones form in the gallbladder, the organ that stores bile secreted by the liver.
These stones look like small stones and are composed of cholesterol, bile pigments, and calcium. Stones can be numerous if they are small (like a grain of salt) and can be as big as a golf ball. It's not clear what triggers gallstone formation, but the most common risk factor is obesity. Symptoms In most cases, gallstones don't cause symptoms.
Therefore, gallstones are diagnosed during a bladder ultrasound. Most cases of asymptomatic gallstones (gallstones) don't need treatment. Occasional pain (hepatic colic) or constant, severe pain (cholecystitis) can be treated with pain relievers or, sometimes, antibiotics (cholecystitis), antispasmodics, and antiemetics to relieve nausea and reduce vomiting. Eventually, surgery will be needed to remove the gallbladder and gallstones (cholecystectomy).
This procedure can be done through small incisions in the abdomen (laparoscopy) or it can take the form of open surgery (laparotomy). For non-urgent cases, there is oral treatment with a medication (ursodiol) that dissolves certain stones within six months to two years. Diverticula can form in the large intestine of people aged 40 and older. These are small “bags” a few millimeters in size and located in various places in the large intestine.
While diverticulosis primarily affects the colon or large intestine, diverticula can also be found throughout the digestive tract, including the stomach and small intestine. Diverticula form when weak areas of the colon wall stretch under pressure. If the pressure causes a small injury to the wall of the diverticulum, infection can result. Causes include a sedentary lifestyle and a diet without enough fiber.
Sudden, severe pain in the lower abdomen on the left side. Sometimes the pain is moderate, variable and increases gradually over several days. Asymptomatic diverticulosis does not require treatment. However, it is recommended to increase the amount of fiber in the patient's diet.
A quarter of patients develop diverticulitis, which is treated with oral pain relievers and antibiotics (at home) or intravenous antibiotics (in the hospital). In addition, in 25% of cases, surgery is required to remove the diseased part of the colon. This surgery often requires the creation of an intestinal connection through an opening in the abdomen (stoma) that allows an ostomy bag to be placed. In most cases, the bag can be removed three to six months after surgery.
Bleeding from diverticula is usually resorbed, but if it persists, colonoscopy and other interventions may be necessary. Appendicitis is a sudden inflammation of the appendix, a small worm-shaped lump located at the beginning of the large intestine, in the lower right part of the abdomen. It occurs most often between the ages of 10 and 30 and affects one in 15 people, and slightly more often in men than in women. Appendicitis must be treated promptly, or the appendix could burst and cause peritonitis, an infection of the peritoneum, the thin wall that surrounds the abdominal cavity and that contains the intestines.
In some cases, peritonitis requires emergency medical treatment and can be fatal. Appendicitis is usually the result of a fecal or mucosal obstruction. The appendix then becomes inflamed with bacteria and deteriorates in the long term. Acute appendicitis can cause serious complications, such as ruptured appendix and peritoneal infection (peritonitis).
Surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy) is the most effective way to treat acute appendicitis. Appendectomy can be performed through a large abdominal incision (laparotomy) or through smaller incisions (laparoscopy) that allow the insertion of a small video camera and surgical instruments. Antibiotics are often given before and after surgery. Recovery after an appendectomy usually takes just a few days.
Certain medical centers (mainly in Europe) tend to treat cases of simple appendicitis with antibiotics only. This treatment avoids the need for immediate surgery, but when the appendix is left in place, there is a risk of reinfection. Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammation of the digestive system, develops in a cycle of attacks and phases of remission. It causes abdominal pain and diarrhea, which can last for several weeks or months and cause fatigue, weight loss and even malnutrition.
It can also cause non-digestive symptoms that affect the skin, joints, or eyes. Crohn's disease can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. However, it is most commonly found at the junction of the small intestine and the colon (large intestine). The causes of inflammation are not well understood, but research has shown that it may be related to genetic, autoimmune and environmental factors.
Although Crohn's disease isn't entirely genetic, some genes may increase the risk of developing it. As with many other diseases, it seems that a genetic predisposition, combined with environmental or lifestyle factors, seems to trigger the disease. Researchers now believe that inflammation of the digestive tract may be related to the body's excessive immune response against viruses or bacteria in the gut. The treatment of Crohn's disease depends on many factors, such as age, severity of the disease, and personal resistance to the side effects of a medication.
First, several oral anti-inflammatory drugs are given, such as glucocorticoids (budesonide, prednisone) and sulfasalazine. More severe cases require the use of stronger immunomodulatory agents (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine), including biological products such as infliximab. Fifty percent of patients with Crohn's disease need surgery during their lifetime, either to unblock segments of the intestine or to remove a diseased section of the colon. Like Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the rectum and travels to the colon.
It is mainly diagnosed in people between the ages of 30 and 40, but it can occur at any age in both men and women. Scientists believe that inflammation of the colorectal mucosa is due to an excessive immune response against viruses or bacteria in the intestine, and that this reaction is directed against the “good bacteria” that normally live in the digestive tract (intestinal flora). Ulcerative colitis may also be related to environmental factors, while stress and food intolerances may trigger symptoms in some people. However, these factors do not cause the disease.
Ulcerative colitis treatment is similar to treatment for Crohn's disease. Unlike Crohn's disease, which can affect the entire digestive tract, ulcerative colitis primarily affects the lower part of the colon and the rectum. Various anti-inflammatory agents, such as mesalamine and glucocorticoids (prednisone), can be administered in the form of suppositories or a rectal suspension (enema). More severe cases will require the use of potent immunosuppressants (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, infliximab, etc.).
Severe cases may require surgery to remove the colon, rectum, and sometimes even the anus. In the latter case, a permanent stoma is required. Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by the consumption of gluten, a mix of proteins found in wheat, barley and rye. People with this disease have an abnormal immune response when they eat foods that contain gluten.
This reaction causes inflammation and damages the intestinal wall. If the inflammation persists, the damaged intestine can no longer absorb certain nutrients, vitamins and minerals, which can lead to malnutrition despite a healthy diet. Celiac disease is not an intolerance to gluten, which is a term often used to describe it. It is an abnormal response of the immune system.
Recent research has revealed that nearly all people with celiac disease have the HLA-type DQ2 or DQ8 genes, but other genes may also be responsible. Since celiac disease involves an immune reaction to gluten, treatment is based exclusively on adopting a gluten-free diet (i.e. No rye, wheat or barley, and sometimes no oats, due to frequent cross-contamination with gluten-containing grains). They should also avoid exposure to flour dust in the air.
The advice of a dietician is essential to help identify products that obviously contain gluten, as well as those that are less obvious (p. There are also numerous websites on the subject. A dietician can help the patient find a balanced diet to correct any nutritional deficiencies caused by the disease. Because celiac disease is largely hereditary, it is important to evaluate all members of the immediate family.
Gastroenterology is the medical specialty that deals with the study and management of the digestive tract. In research, there have been significant advances in recent years in the diagnosis, treatment and exploration of digestive diseases. Biron offers all the state-of-the-art medical radiology tests needed to help your healthcare professional diagnose digestive disorders. Digestive disorders affect the organs of the digestive system, including the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas, among others.
Common causes of constipation include dehydration, not getting enough fiber in the diet, and certain medications and health problems that can slow down the digestive system. Digestive disorders are a group of conditions that occur when the digestive system doesn't work as it should. .